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Major Resin Types

Major Resin Types

The resin component in the formulation will largely determine the processing and
end-use performance properties of powder coatings. A summary of the characteristics
and applications for the most common thermosetting and thermoplastic powder coatings
may be found in the following sections (click on resin for summary).

Thermosetting powders

Thermoplastic powders

Epoxy

Polyvinyl Chloride

Epoxy – Polyester Hybrid

Polyolefins

Urethane Polyester

Nylon

Polyester TGIC

Polyester

Acrylic

Polyvinylidene Fluoride

There are other powder coating resins that are in commercial use, but not included
here because they are either used less frequently.

There are two main classifications for powder coatings: thermoplastic and thermoset.
A thermoplastic powder coating melts and flows when heat is applied, but continues
to have the same chemical composition once it cools to a solid coating. Thermosetting
powder coatings also melt when exposed to heat. However, after they flow to form
a continuous film, they chemically crosslink on additional heating. The final coating
has a different chemical structure than the applied powder. Table 1 and 2 provide
properties of thermosetting and thermoplastic powders respectively.

 

Epoxy

Epoxy Hybrids

Urethane Polyester

TGIC Polyester

Acrylic

Hardness (Pencil)

HB-7H

HB-2H

HB-4H

HB-4H

H-4H

Impact Resistance (in-lbs)

۶۰-۱۶۰

۶۰-۱۶۰

۶۰-۱۶۰

۶۰-۱۶۰

۴۰-۱۰۰

Gloss (60 deg. meter)

۳-۱۰۰+

۱۰-۱۰۰+

۱۵-۹۵

۲۰-۹۰

۱۰-۹۰

Color

Al colors, clear, textures

Al colors, clear, textures

Al colors, clear, textures

Al colors, clear, textures

Al colors, clear, textures

Salt Spray

۱۰۰۰ hrs

۱۰۰۰ hrs min

۱۰۰۰ hrs

۱۰۰۰ hrs min

۱۰۰۰ hrs min

Condensing Humidity

۱۰۰۰ hrs

۱۰۰۰ hrs min

۱۰۰۰ hrs

۱۰۰۰ hrs min

۱۰۰۰ hrs min

Cure Range*

۳ min at 232°C to 25 min at 121°C

۱۰ min at 204°C to 25 min at 149°C

۱۰ min at 204°C to 25 min at 149°C

۱۰ min at 204°C to 25 min at 149°C

۱۰ min at 204°C to 25 min at 177°C

* Typical 2 mil (50 µm) film – time at metal temperature

Table 1: Comparison of Properties Between Thermosetting Powder Coating Resins

 

 

Vinyl

Nylon

Polyester

Primer Required

Yes

Yes

No

Melting Point, °C

۱۳۰-۱۵۰

۱۸۶

۱۶۰-۱۷۰

Typical Pre/Post Heat, °C

۲۸۴ / ۲۳۰

۳۱۰ / ۲۵۰

۳۰۰ / ۲۵۰

Adhesion

G-E

E

E

Surface Appearance

Smooth

Smooth

Slight Peel

Gloss, 60 deg

۴۰-۹۰

۲۰-۹۵

۶۰-۹۵

Pencil Hardness

HB-2H

B

B-H

Impact Resistance

E

E

G-E

Salt Spray Resistance

G

E

G

Weathering

G

G

E

Humidity

E

E

G

Acid Resistance

E

F

G

Alkali Resistance

E

E

G

Solvent Resistance

F

E

F

E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair

Table 2: Physical and Coating Properties of Thermoplastic Powders

Once cured, thermosetting powders are heat stable and, unlike thermoplastic powder
coatings, will not revert back to the molten stage when reheated. Thermosetting
powders are also tougher, have better adhesion to metal substrates, and are more
resistant to solvents and chemicals than thermoplastic coatings. Thermosetting powders
account for about 95% of all powder coatings.

Thermoplastic powders are typically high molecular weight materials that require
high temperatures to melt and flow. The primary advantage of thermoplastic coatings
is that they form a smoother finish and require less energy. They are commonly applied
by fluidized bed application, and the parts are both preheated and postheated. Most
of the thermoplastic powder coatings have marginal adhesion so that the substrate
must be pretreated and sometimes primed prior to coating application.

 

Major Resin Types
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